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Private International Law: Publications 2021-2023

➡ Article published in the Tribune de Lyon on 14 January 2016

To which jurisdiction should disputes between European cross-border companies be addressed?

The new Brussels I bis Regulation (no. 1215/2012) on jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters has recast the European rules on conflicts of jurisdictions. It entered into force on 10 January 2015.

Legal practitioners must therefore adapt to the changes brought about by these new provisions.

Insurance Law : 2023 contributions

➡ RAJOT Bénédicte's contributions to the Lexis Nexis insurance law Code 2023

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➡ Guarantee funds: 

 Specialized compensation funds founded by insurance companies and the State have been created for victims of damage and for which the responsible person couldn't be identified, or is insolvent. Thus, within each Judicial Tribunal (T.J.), the "Commission d’Indemnisation des Victimes d’Infractions (CIVI)" decides on the compensation claims presented by the victims or their beneficiaries.

The guarantee funds of compulsory insurance of damage (fonds de garantie des assurances obligatoires de dommages) (FGAO) compensate victims of road accident which occurred in France when the liable person is not identified, not insured or when his insurer is completely or partially insolvent. (art. L.421-1 Code des assurances)

The guarantee funds for victims of terrorism and other offenses (Le fonds de garantie des victimes des actes de Terrorisme et d'autres Infractions) (FGTI) compensates victims of terrorism acts. (art. L.422-1 Code des assurances)

The guarantee funds of insured against the failure of persons insurance companies (Le fonds de garantie des assurés contre la défaillance de sociétés d’assurance de personnes) (FGAP) preserves insured's rights, policyholders, member and beneficiaries of life insurances, capitalization, and covers of corporal damage or supported by article L.441-1 of insurance law code. (art. L.423-1 Code des assurances)

→ The compensation authoritiescreated by Law No. 2003-706 of 1 August 2003 makes it possible to compensate injured persons residing in France who are entitled to compensation for any injury resulting from accidents occurring in the metropolitan territory of a State party to the European Economic Area, other than the French State, and involving a vehicle having its usual parking and being insured in one of those States. (art. L.424-1 Insurance Code)

→ The Guarantee Fund for the Risks of Agricultural Application of Urban or Industrial Sewage Sludge to Compensate Farmers and Owners of Agricultural and Forestry Land for Damages Where Such Land, having received sprays of urban or industrial sewage sludge, would become totally or partially unsuitable for cultivation due to the realization of a health risk or the occurrence of ecological damage related to the spraying. (art. L.425-1 Insurance Code)

The guarantee fund for damage resulting from acts of prevention, diagnosis or care performed by health professionals (FAPDS) is intended to cover compensation for damage suffered by victims as a result of acts of prevention, diagnosis or care incurring the civil liability of a health professional in case of exceeding the ceiling of coverage or in case of expiry of the period of validity of the insurance coverage. (art. L.426-1 Insurance Code)

The National medical accident, iatrogenic infections compensation office, ( L'Office national d'indemnisation des accidents médicaux, des affections iatrogènes et des infections nosocomiales) (ONIAM) compensates damage caused but medical accident, iatrogenic infections and other compensations in accordance with Public Health code. The office is also in charge of compensating damage caused by compulsory vaccines, victims of damage caused by HIV or C hepatitis contamination by blood transfusion or medical injection, and for compensating damages directly arising from a prevention, diagnosis or care activity, (art. L.1142-22 Code de la santé publique)

Compensation funds for asbestos victims (Le fonds d’indemnisation des victimes de l’amiante)(FIVA) compensates persons that obtained the acknowledgment of a professional illness caused by asbestos in accordance with French social security legislation or assimilated regime or legislation applicable to military or civil invalidity pension, persons overcoming damage caused directly by exposition to asbestos on the French Republic, beneficiaries of these persons. (article 53 de la Loi n°2000-1257 du 23 décembre 2000 sur le financement de la sécurité sociale pour 2001)

 LexisNexis Practice Sheet: Liability of Lawyers: RAJOT Bénédicte, May 2023, “Professional Risk for the Lawyer”.

→ Civil, criminal, contractual liability of the attorney, time limitations of the liability claim, search for negligence of the attorney, prudence duty of the attorney, damage proof, enforcement of liability.

→ Regarding information and advice obligation arising of the contractual liability of the attorney see Cour de cassation, 1ère Chambre civile, 4 février 2015, n° de pourvoi 14-10841, non publié au bulletin.

➡ Practical sheet LexisNexis: contract exemption causes: RAJOT Bénédicte, June 2023, «Causes of exemption in matters of contractual liability (force majeure and hardship)».

→ force majeure : causes exemption when the event meets three criteria: irresistibility, unpredictability, and the exteriority of the event from the activity.

→ “hardship” (théorie de l’imprévision) : the advent of a economic rigor such that it upsets the economy of the contract and unbalanced it.

➡ eFascicule LexisNexis: compensation funds : RAJOT Bénédicte, 2022, « Fonds d’indemnisation».

→ Guarantee funds of compulsory insurance of damage: road accidents, technological catastrophes, real estate damage from mine exploitation, failure of damage insurance companies.

→ Guarantee funds for victims of terrorism and other offenses.

→ Compensation funds for asbestos victims.

→ National medical accident, iatrogenic infections compensation office.

➡RAJOT Bénédicte's Contribution to book Les grandes décisions du droit des assurances, LGDJ, march 2022

→ RAJOT Bénédicte, march 2022 "Les grandes décisions du droit des assurances", contributions

➡ RAJOT Bénédicte's Contribution to the Revue Lamy Droit maritime français, 2019

→ RAJOT Bénédicte, march 2019 "Quand la liberté des mers s'efface au profit de la lutte contre la pollution environnementale", n°811, p. 262

➡ RAJOT Bénédicte's Contribution to the Revue Lamy Droit des Affaires (RLDA)

→ RAJOT, Bénédicte, december 2014 « L'intermédiation en assurances : Intermédiaire en assurance ou salarié en assurance, il faut choisir ! » RLDA, n°99, p.74-75 

➡ RAJOT Bénédicte's Contribution to the Revue Responsabilité civile et assurance

→ RAJOT Bénédicte, 2022 "Responsabilité civile et assurances", Fasc. n° 533, fonds divers.

→ RAJOT Bénédicte, febuary 2022 "Responsabilité civile et assurances", Fasc. n° n° 530.

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